In this fast growing techie world, the limelight is constantly on the tech market and the companies that bring you all the latest technology. We have reached a point where the focus has shifted from latest gadgets to various other technological sections that have commercial solutions for most of the technical problems of today. These need to be feasible, preferably affordable and also, it goes unsaid, fast and reliable.
Any software engineer worth his salt would tell you that the leading areas of work today are as follows.
- Big data – Storing vast amount of data at the global level and quick analysis of complex data structures. The importance of big data arises in data handling and data analysis. With the gigantic growth of collective data in the world, its storage and quick access becomes problematic.
Big data solves this by streaming data from a network of devices, accessing large amounts of data through open data sources. It also provides preventive measures of misuse of data through security controls and encryption.
The sweeping changes in big data technologies and management approaches need to be accompanied by similarly dramatic shifts in how data supports decisions and product/service innovation. 
- Cloud computing – Online computing services like storage, databases, networking, analysis and more. Different cloud providers offer tailored computing works as per user requirement. It is cost effective and allows high speed data access, handling or viewing. Data can be accessed from or created to anywhere in the world.
Cloud computing is performance efficient and highly productive. It can save hours of time usually wasted in data transportation or data re-creation, thus making it reliable. Cloud computing is a big shift from the traditional way of designing IT resources.
- Cyber Security – Technology or practice used to protect devices, programs and data from attacks or unauthorised access. Cyber security describes the discipline of protecting sensitive information and the systems used to process or store it.
As the volume and sophistication of cyber attacks grow, the tackling processes and power are also being constantly developed. This field also includes providing designs for secure networking, programming and data handling.
- IoT (Internet of Things) – The vast network of devices connected to the Internet like smart phones, tablets, wearable’s and more. These “things” collect and exchange data. They are characterised by fast and real-time data streaming and affordable high-speed access to data networks.
IoT works on sensor driven devices and sensor controlled data, which is accessed by next generation applications that provide collaborative data handling removing interruptions. The security measures are again critical, requiring ability to secure monitored devices, encrypt sensitive data and build risk mitigation into systems.
- Machine learning – It enables machines to learn on their own. A machine’s learning algorithm enables it to identify patterns, build models, and predict things without having explicit pre-programmed rules and models.
It includes automated machinery, its structure and usage; the functionality and working parameters of different machines, how quick they can learn something new. How they can be built to help companies provide better service.
- Artificial Intelligence – It can be simply explained as “cognitive” functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as “learning” and “problem solving”.
Founded as an academic discipline, AI research includes reasoning, knowledge, manual work, learning, Natural Language Processing (NPL) and manual work. Inputs provided for AI machines are statistical data, computational power and traditional intelligence abilities.
- Thomas H. Davenport in Big Data in Big Companies
- Wikipedia, Artificial Intelligence